Zdravstveni dom Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenija
Zdravstveni dom Trbovlje, Trbovlje, Slovenija
Služba za alergologijo, revmatologijo in klinično imunologijo Pediatrična klinika, Univerzitetni klinični center Ljubljana
Rheumatic diseases in children are rare. Even rarer are the emergency conditions in rheumatology that still need to be recognized immediately, since untreated or inadequately treated can lead to death. In rheumatic diseases, which can be broadly referred to as immune-mediated diseases, besides the musculoskeletal system, all other organs can be affected too. The most common rheumatic disease is childhood chronic arthritis, where a serious complication affects the cervical spine, eyes and in systemic form of arthritis also the heart. Among the vasculitides, the most common is Henoch-Schönlein purpura, where the severe condition affects the gastrointestinal and central nervous system. with the Kawasaki disease and acute rheumatic fever, the most severe complication is heart disease. Musculoskeletal problems, mainly as joint pain or joint swelling, can be one of the first signs of these diseases. Macrophage activation syndrome may occur as a complication of almost all rheumatic diseases.
Key words: child, rheumatology, musculoskeletal system, arthritis, vasculitis