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Slovenska pediatrija 2019; 26: 109-115


Review article

DEVELOPMENT OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM AND PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIATIONS

Klara Bartolj
Oddelek otroške in šolske medicine, Zdravstveni dom Novo mesto, Novo mesto, Slovenija

Nuša Peček
Otroški oddelek, Splošna bolnišnica Izola, Izola, Slovenija

Karin Schara
Oddelek otroške ortopedske kirurgije Ortopedska klinika Univerzitetni klinični center Ljubljana Zaloška cesta 9, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenija

Abstract

The process of development of the lower extremities and the spine starts intrauterine and finishes when the child stops growing. During a child’s growth and learning how to walk, paediatricians can stumble upon different devel­opmental variations of the locomotor system. The most common among them are in-toeing and out-toeing, toe walking, genum varum and valgum, flat feet, leg length discrepancy, kyphosis, scoliosis, pectus carinatum and exca­vatum. Most of them are just developmental variations in specific age groups and only require clinical observation and occasionally conservative treatment. In case of clinical fea­tures suggesting a pathological cause of the deformation, the child needs to be referred to an orthopaedic surgeon or other specialist as indicated by the suspected underlying condition.

Key words: musculoskeletal development, musculoskeletal physiological phenomena, musculoskeletal abnormalities


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