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Slovenska pediatrija 2018; 25: 238-246


Review article

METABOLIC SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

P. Kotnik
Klinični oddelek za endokrinologijo, diabetes in presnovne bolezni, Pediatrična klinika, Univerzitetni klinični center Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenija

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome in adults is defined as a combination of central obesity, hypertension, elevated triglycerides, lowered HDL cholesterol and hyperglycaemia. It is a consequence of increased whole-body insulin resistance and consequent hyperinsulinism. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of cardiovascular incidents. Isolated components of the metabolic syndrome also increase the risk of cardiovascular incidents in children and adolescents. The limits at which these components significantly increase the risk in this population are not clear and should rather be regarded as a risk continuum and interpreted in the light of the treatment of the child as a whole. In addition to increased cardiovascular risk, the presence of components of the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents is also associated with premature adrenarche, polycystic ovarian syndrome, non-alcoholic liver disease, an increased risk of anxiety and depression and obstructive sleep apnoea. Early determination of components of metabolic syndrome or metabolic syndrome in its entity in children and adolescents is of major importance for the individual and society as a whole, as it enables an earlier and potentially more effective therapeutic interventions.

Key words: central obesity, dyslipidemia, prediabetes, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension.

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