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Slovenska pediatrija 2021; 28: 159-164

https://doi.org/10.38031/slovpediatr-2021-3-06en

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Research article

ATELECTASIS AS A COMPLICATION OF ACUTE BRONCHIOLITIS IN THE NEONATE

Anja Korošec
Klinični oddelek za neonatologijo, Pediatrična klinika, UKC Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenija

Jana Lozar Krivec
Klinični oddelek za neonatologijo, Pediatrična klinika, UKC Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenija

Mojca Grošelj Grenc
Klinični oddelek za neonatologijo, Pediatrična klinika, UKC Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenija

Abstract

Background. Acute bronchiolitis is one of the main reasons for the hospitalisation of children under two years of age. Atelectasis, ventilation-perfusion mismatch, and bacterial superinfection can lead to non-invasive or invasive ventilation support. We aimed to identify the risk factors for the development of atelectasis in newborns with acute bronchiolitis. Patients and methods. The retrospective cohort analysis included neonates with acute bronchiolitis who were hospitalized at the Department of Neonatology, Division of Paediatrics, University Medical Centre Ljubljana in the period from October 2017 to March 2018. The patients were divided into two groups: neonates with associated atelectasis and without. We reviewed their medical history, clinical, and laboratory indicators. Results. We treated 29 neonates with acute bronchiolitis, 8 had associated atelectasis. The group of neonates with atelectasis required supplementary oxygen for a longer period (p = 0.01) and more frequently non-invasive and/or invasive ventilation support (p = 0.017). They were more often treated with antibiotics (p = 0.004) and radiological signs of pneumonia were more frequently seen (p = 0.008). Prematurity, birth weight, male gender, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection were not identified as risk factors for atelectasis. Conclusions. Neonates with acute bronchiolitis and atelectasis were more likely to have bacterial superinfection and pneumonia.

Key words: acute bronchiolitis, atelectasis, newborn, risk factor